NH3 The Gas Blending SECRET to 100%
Fueling and Power
"WATER FILLED" Split = ((H+Ni ((Ionized + Charged via air intake /Gas processor ))
= "AMMONIA FUELED" + O (injected) + spark) =BANG
The only by-products are water vapor and nitrogen gas "Stanley Meyers".
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How is the Fuel Utilized?
Ammonia as a Hydrogen Carrier
Essentially, the ammonia fuel used acts as a hydrogen carrier. A carrier is defined as a material, other than the H 2 molecule, that can be used to transport hydrogen (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2006). Addtional requirements for the transformation of the material to hydrogen must be relatively simple, low in cost, and energy efficient. There are some basic requirements for the material selected as the carrier to be effective. The material selected needs to have a high hydrogen (energy) density. The hydrogenation-dehydrogenation processes need to be simple and energy efficient. The associated processes should be safe, environmentally friendly, and have no adverse health effects.
Ammonia is considered a "one-way carrier". A one-way carrier is a material that decomposes at a distribution site to yield hydrogen and a byproduct (DOE, 2006). The byproduct produced would have to be environmentally benign and cause no adverse health effects. Currently, ammonia is potentially one of the best one-way carriers of hydrogen. Ammonia can be produced cheaply, transported efficiently, and it can be transformed directly to hydrogen with a non-polluting byproduct.
Onboard Storage & Delivery
Anydrous (i.e. absence of water) ammonia looks very appealing as a hydrogen carrier. It also has great potential for onboard storage, due to anydrous ammnoia having a high capacity for hydrogen storage, 17.8 wt.% (17.8% hydrogen by weight). On a volumetric basis, anydrous ammonia contains more H 2 than liquiefied or pressurized hydrogen itself (Elucidare, 2008). Since ammonia is known to have physical properties similar to propane, that means it can be stored in simple, inexpensive pressure vessels just like propane or liquiefied petroleum gas. Ammonia is compatible with many polymers, which means the onboard storage vessels can be made out of composite materials or lightweight aluminum tanks that have a polymer liner.
The anhydrous ammonia fuel can be utilized in a variety of different ways. Ammonia can be converted into usefull energy either directly, i.e. using an internal combustion engine or electrochemical fuel cell, or indirectly via cracking ("Ammonia," 2008).
Existing internal combustion engines can be slightly modified to make them ammonia compatible. There are modifications required other than the spark timing for ignition and ammonia flow control. Combustion in an internal combustion engine is possible when an ammonia/air vapor mixture is introduce in the intake manifold of an engine and then either biodiesel or ethanol are injected depending on whether the engine is a diesel or spark-ignition engine, respectively. The biodiesel or ethanol is injected to initiate combustion without having to modify the existing fuel injection system of the engine (Kong, 2007). The ammonia biofuel mixture is 95% ammonia and 5% biofuel.
Figure 1: Depiction of the ammonia/air vapor mixture with the diesel to initiate combustion in a diesel internal combustion engine (Kong, 2007)
The premise behind a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the decomposition (cracking) of anhydrous ammonia evolves hydrogen gas that can be converted to electric power. The decomposition of ammonia is shown in Equation (1).
NH 3 (g) → 1/2 N 2 (g) + 3/2 H 2 (g) ΔH = +46 kJ/mol (1)
Figure 2: The electrolysis of ammonia in an alkaline media ("Ammonia," 2008)
The electrolysis of ammonia begins at the anode, where ammonia and potassium hydroxide (KOH, i.e. the alkaline media) form ammonia hydroxide (NH 4 OH). The hydroxyl ions (- OH) remove nitrogen from the ammonia hydroxide creating water, while the nitrogen atoms are adsorbed in the electrode surface and that are then oxidized to form gaseous nitrogen ("Ammonia," 2008). The cathode works in the same way as the anode works by water being hydrolyzed in the alkaline media, where hydroxyl ions and hydrogen ions from the water molecules are deposited at the electrode surface. Equations (2) and (3) depict this, while Equation (4) represents the overall equation for the electrolysis of ammonia in an alkaline media ("Ammonia," 2008).
2NH4OH(aq) + 6OH-(aq)→N2(g) + 8H2O(l) + 6e- E= -0.77V (2)
6H2O + 6e- → 3H2(g)+ 6OH- (aq) E= -0.82V (3)
2NH4OH(aq) → N2(g) + 3H2(g) + 2H2O(l) E=-0.059V (4)
However, cracking ammonia is not 100% efficient. The maximum theoretical decomposition efficiency is 85.6% ("Ammonia," 2008). This is due to the fact that the decomposition of ammonia is endothermic, meaning it requires 2.69 MJ/kg of energy at 25°C to evolve hydrogen and nitrogen ('Ammonia," 2008). Therefore, for stable dissociation temperatures over 400°C are required. It is important to note that PEM fuel cells are incompatible at trace levels of ammonia ( \( %3E \) 0.1 ppm) (DOE, 2006).
Ammonia has favorable number of attributes, especially its ability as a hydrogen carrier. In order to evolve hydrogen from ammonia however, requires a significant amount of energy input. Also, the decomposition is not a 100% efficient, so any uncoverted ammonia will "poison" the PEM fuel cell and render it useless. To avoid poisoning the fuel cells a purification system would have to be put into place in the onboard storage and delivery system. Therefore, better cracking/purification systems need to be developed in order to reduce the size of the onboard reactor and to reduce the operating temperature.
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Ammonia: New possibilities for hydrogen storage and transportation (February, 2008). Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Claverton Energy Research Group: Alternative Fuels: http://www.claverton-energy.com/energy-experts-library/downloads/alternativefuels
Kong, Song-Charng (2007). Combustion Efficiency and Exhaust Emissions of Ammonia Combustion in Diesel Engines. Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Iowa Energy Center, 2008 Ammonia Conference: http://www.energy.iastate.edu/Renewable/ammonia/ammonia/2008/Kong_2008.pdf
U.S. Department of Energy. (2006, February). Potential Roles of Ammonia in a Hydrogen Economy. Retrieved March 25, 2009, from U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program: http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/nh3_paper.pdf
What is needed to manufacture ammonia?
Ammonia can be made from air, water and a source of energy. Nitrogen from the air, and hydrogen from the water, using a split gas machine THE STANLEY MEYERS PROCESS and variations of it.
How does ammonia use compare to Hydrogen as a fuel?
Although hydrogen has received a lot of press recently, it has several fundamental technical problems which will always dramatically limit its practical rollout for vehicular use on a broad scale.
These problems are not limited to the fact that hydrogen’s energy density is a tiny fraction of that of ammonia by volume. This means that you’d have to refuel your hydrogen vehicle as much as 7 times as often to go the same distance on hydrogen as you would using ammonia. Hydrogen must also be stored at very high pressures (ie. 10,000 PSI), or at very low cryogenic temperatures. Both high pressure storage and cryogenic storage require significant additional power input, further reducing hydrogen’s energy efficiency.
In fact when we react ammonia, we’re actually using hydrogen, since that’s the element in ammonia that provides the energy.
So if we make it on demand on board in the correct way we can h H3 and much more h in the fuel rail and to cylinders on demand.
What are the emissions from a converted ammonia fueled vehicle?
The emissions from the reacted ammonia are nitrogen and water vapor. When operated dual fuel, the gasoline or other hydrocarbon may still generate a small amount of CO and CO2, etc. However, this emission is typically reduced by roughly 60 to 70%. If used in fuel cell the emissions drop to zero.
All fuels and energy sources, including even charged batteries have some potential hazard associated with them. However, ammonia will not explode like gasoline, natural gas or hydrogen. In fact, it is difficult to get ammonia to burn, even though it makes an excellent fuel for cars and trucks.
Ammonia vehicle fueling and storage takes place safely without any human access to the ammonia liquid or gas, just like the fueling process for natural gas vehicles. Also, ammonia does not represent a long term toxin to cellular biology, whereas gasoline is quite poisonous. Ammonia is classified as a caustic substance, which means inhaling it or getting it on your skin isn’t healthy, but overall it is far less dangerous than gasoline.
Since ammonia (NH3) fuel can be created close to the point of refill fewer large tankers or railcars of fuel need to be moved around cutting down on danger from accident and polution and fuel used in the transport.
How does ammonia use compare to natural gas?
Ammonia contains no carbon and releases no greenhouse gases, but natural gas does.
Although natural gas is somewhat cleaner than gasoline, its use still releases greenhouse gases in significant quantities.
One day natural gas will run out but ammonia can always be manufactured using a Gas synthesis machine.
Why use ammonia for a vehicle fuel?
Ammonia is one of the few practical liquid high-energy density non-petroleum fuels that we will ever have. The laws of physics and chemistry limit the ways in which we can transfer energy efficiently. Ammonia is one of the few chemical compounds which is a liquid, rapidly releases energy in combustion and has a high energy density by volume. All of these parameters are needed for powering vehicles in a practical manner. And as wonderful added bonus, ammonia generates no greenhouse gases or carbon particulate emissions.
Where do you get ammonia?
Ammonia occurs naturally only in very small amounts. Almost all ammonia is manufactured. Most people are surprised to find out that ammonia is the 4th largest manufactured and transported commodity in the United States. This is because ammonia is used for fertilizer for growing many of the foods here and around the world. Because so much ammonia is used by farmers everywhere, ammonia is available almost everywhere.
Now Split gas Cells are mass produced everyone can produce their own NH3 fuel at their home or business or farm to be used for fuel and fertilizer.
Ammonia is produced naturally in the human body.
When you get that sudden sting or sharp burst to cry in the nose and eye area, that is ammonia.
NH3 generates ammonia using wind power — a completely clean source
Can ammonia be made from renewable or “green” energy sources?
Yes. This is one of the huge benefits of ammonia as a fuel. You can’t make crude oil or gasoline at any price. When it’s gone, it’s gone forever. But ammonia can be manufactured from any source of energy including great renewables like hydro-electric, solar or wind power! And manufacturing ammonia does not involve shifting vast quantities of land from producing food to producing plants for biofuels.
Is ammonia a liquid or a gas?
Ammonia quickly turns to a gas when exposed to air. But ammonia is easily and indefinitely stored as a liquid at about 150 PSI , a very low pressure which doesn’t require special high pressure tanks like hydrogen.
How does ammonia use compare to natural gas?
Ammonia contains no carbon and releases no green house gases, but natural gas does. So, although natural gas is somewhat cleaner than gasoline, its use still releases green house gases in significant quantities. And one day natural gas will run out and there won’t be any more, but ammonia can always be manufactured.
Converting a Vehicle to run on Ammonia (NH3)
How does an ammonia dual fueled vehicle work?
The simplest implementation of the dual fueled ammonia vehicle conversion is physically similar to a compressed natural gas vehicle conversion. A new on-board tank holds liquid ammonia at only about 150 PSI. Regulators, valves and an electronic control system meter the flow of ammonia to the engine as needed after the engine is started and warmed up on gasoline, ethanol etc. A small amount of gasoline is used to idle the engine, then as the load is increased the additional energy is provided by adding ammonia. This is all handled automatically by the engine control electronic module.
Can I buy a conversion kit for my private car today?
No. Not at this time. Conversion work is currently concentrated with fleet vehicles and other large market applications. Although, with increasing gasoline prices, conversions for private vehicles are coming.
How much will private vehicle conversion cost?
Conversion to operate substantially on ammonia is similar to the process of converting a vehicle to operate on compressed natural gas or propane. The parts and labor are expected to be a couple of thousand dollars for private cars.
Of course if the vehicles were built to use ammonia (NH3) new at the factory it would cost much less. We contacted all the auto companies in previous years but none have responded yet.
When is it cost effective to convert my car and operate on ammonia?
Cost savings depend on the price of both gasoline and ammonia. During the NH3 car’s trip across America, gasoline was more than $2.25/gallon and ammonia was approximately $450/ton. This scenario represented a cost savings over operating on straight gasoline. Currently gas prices are fluctuating wildly, but one thing is for sure, in the future we can all expect increasing petroleum prices.
Can my converted car still be operated on just gasoline?
Yes, with the flip a switch the vehicle can run on 100% gasoline as normal. Something not possible with many natural gas vehicles.
How big is the ammonia tank?
Ammonia when liquefied contains roughly half of the energy of gasoline by volume. This means that an ammonia tank the size of your current gas tank will cary you more than 2/3rds of the distance of operating on gasoline alone, between fill ups when the contribution of the gasoline’s energy is considered.
NH3 Versus Hydrogen
Some advantages of ammonia with respect to hydrogen are:
less expensive cost per unit of stored energy
higher volumetric energy density that is comparable with that of gasoline, easier production, handling and distribution
better commercial viability
refrigeration effect of ammonia
NH3 is safe, Hydrogen is dangerous
The study suggested that the most efficient system is based on fuel-cells which provide simultaneously power, heating and cooling and its only exhaust consists of water and nitrogen.
If the cooling effect is taken into consideration, the system’s effectiveness reaches 46% implying that a medium size car ranges over 500 km with 50 l fuel at a cost below $2 per 100 km.
The cooling power represents about 7.2% from the engine power, being thus a valuable side benefit of ammonia’s presence on-board.
NH3 as a fuel – Research
Using ammonia as a sustainable fuel
C. Zamfirescu, I. Dincer
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ont., Canada L1H 7K4 ~ available since 17 July 2008
Link to complete article here
Ammonia is the least expensive fuel in terms of $ GJ
In terms of GJm ammonia becomes the third, after gasoline and LPG.
There is an advantage of by-product refrigeration, 7.2% fromHHV, which reduces the costs and maintenance.
Ammonia is the cheapest fuel per 100 km driving range as a reasonable and practical assumption.
Some additional advantages of ammonia are commercial availability and viability, global distribution network, easy handling experience, etc., while its toxicity may be seen as a challenge.
This can easily be overcome with the current control and storagetechnologies.
Comparison of ammonia with other fuels and hydrogen
P (bar )Density (kgm-3) HHV (MJ kg-1) Energy density (GJm-3) Specific volumetric cost ($m-3) Specific energetic ost ($GJ-1)
Gasoline, C8H18/liquid tank 1 736 46.7 34.4 1000 29.1
CNG, CH4/integrat/storage/system 250 188 55.5 10.4 400 38.3
LPG, C3H8/presurized tank 14 388 48.9 19.0 542 28.5
Methanol, CH3OH/liquid tank 1 749 15.2 11.4 693 60.9
Hydrogen, H2/metal hydrides 14 25 142 3.6 125 35.2
Ammonia/pressurized tank 10 603 22.5 13.6 181 13.3
Ammonia, NH3/metal amines 1 610 17.1 10.4 183 17.5
Performance of ammonia power systems and of other systems
Fuel/system εr(%) $ 100km-1 Range (km)
Gasoline/ICE 24 6.06 825
CNG/ICE 28 6.84 292
LPG/ICE 28 5.10 531
Methanol/reforming + fuel-cell 33 9.22 376
H2 metal hydrides/fuel-cell 40 4.40 142
NH3/direct ICE 44 1.57 592
NH3/Th decomp, ICE 28 2.38 380
NH3/Th decomp Sep, ICE 31 2.15 420
NH3/direct FC 44 1.52 597
NH3/Th. decomp + Sep, FC 46 1.45 624
NH3/electrolysis 20 3.33 271